Writing scientific medical papers

PLoS Med ;e Kotz D, Cals JW. Effective writing and publishing scientific papers - Part I: How to get started. J Clin Epidemiol ; Publish or perish: The art of scientific writing. Indian J Ophthalmol ; BMJ Qual Saf Setiati S, Harimurti K. Writing for scientific medical manuscript: A guide for preparing manuscript submitted to biomedical journals.

Acta Med Indones ; Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence 2. J Surg Res ; Cals JW, Kotz D. Effective writing and publishing scientific papers, part III: Introduction. Effective writing and publishing scientific papers, part V: Results. Pierannunzii L. How to write an original article for the Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. J Orthop Traumatol ; Effective writing and publishing scientific papers, part VI: Discussion.

Jadhav Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. Preparing manuscript: Scientific writing for publication. Current Scenario in India. Pre-Requisites to Manuscript Preparation. Table 1: Essentials of materials and methods Click here to view. Table 2: Editor and reviewer's expectation of a good manuscript Click here to view. This article has been cited by. Here you can see some examples of original titles, and how they were changed after reviews and comments to them:.

Keywords are used for indexing your paper. They are the label of your manuscript. It is true that now they are less used by journals because you can search the whole text.

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However, when looking for keywords, avoid words with a broad meaning and words already included in the title. Some journals require that the keywords are not those from the journal name, because it is implicit that the topic is that. Only abbreviations firmly established in the field are eligible e. Again, check the Guide for Authors and look at the number of keywords admitted, label, definitions, thesaurus, range, and other special requests.

Here, you can thank people who have contributed to the manuscript but not to the extent where that would justify authorship. For example, here you can include technical help and assistance with writing and proofreading. Probably, the most important thing is to thank your funding agency or the agency giving you a grant or fellowship. In the case of European projects, do not forget to include the grant number or reference. Also, some institutes include the number of publications of the organization, e.

Typically, there are more mistakes in the references than in any other part of the manuscript. It is one of the most annoying problems, and causes great headaches among editors. Now, it is easier since to avoid these problem, because there are many available tools. In the text, you must cite all the scientific publications on which your work is based.

But do not over-inflate the manuscript with too many references — it doesn't make a better manuscript! Avoid excessive self-citations and excessive citations of publications from the same region. Minimize personal communications, do not include unpublished observations, manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted for publication, publications that are not peer reviewed, grey literature, or articles not published in English.

In general, you should minimize personal communications, and be mindful as to how you include unpublished observations. These will be necessary for some disciplines, but consider whether they strengthen or weaken your paper. You might also consider articles published on research networks prior to publication, but consider balancing these citations with citations of peer-reviewed research.

When citing research in languages other than English, be aware of the possibility that not everyone in the review process will speak the language of the cited paper and that it may be helpful to find a translation where possible. You can use any software, such as EndNote or Mendeley , to format and include your references in the paper. Most journals have now the possibility to download small files with the format of the references, allowing you to change it automatically. Also, Elsevier's Your Paper Your Way program waves strict formatting requirements for the initial submission of a manuscript as long as it contains all the essential elements being presented here.

Make the reference list and the in-text citation conform strictly to the style given in the Guide for Authors. Remember that presentation of the references in the correct format is the responsibility of the author, not the editor. Checking the format is normally a large job for the editors. Make their work easier and they will appreciate the effort.

In my next article, I will give tips for writing the manuscript, authorship, and how to write a compelling cover letter. Stay tuned! I have based this paper on the materials distributed to the attendees of many courses. It is inspired by many Guides for Authors of Elsevier journals.

Some of this information is also featured in Elsevier's Publishing Connect tutorials.

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An article begins with the Title, Abstract and Keywords. Why did you do it? M ethods: How did you do it? R esults: What did you find?

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A nd D iscussion: What does it all mean? While this is the published structure, however, we often use a different order when writing. Steps to organizing your manuscript Prepare the figures and tables.

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  2. Literature Review Writing;
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  4. Write the Methods. Write up the Results. Write the Discussion. Finalize the Results and Discussion before writing the introduction. This is because, if the discussion is insufficient, how can you objectively demonstrate the scientific significance of your work in the introduction? Write a clear Conclusion. Write a compelling introduction.

    Write the Abstract. Compose a concise and descriptive Title. Select Keywords for indexing. Write the Acknowledgements.


    Guidance on scientific writing

    Write up the References. Step 2: Write the Methods This section responds to the question of how the problem was studied. Length of the manuscript Again, look at the journal's Guide for Authors, but an ideal length for a manuscript is 25 to 40 pages, double spaced, including essential data only. To this end, it's important to use standard systems for numbers and nomenclature. List the methods in the same order they will appear in the Results section, in the logical order in which you did the research: Description of the site Description of the surveys or experiments done, giving information on dates, etc.

    Description of the laboratory methods, including separation or treatment of samples, analytical methods, following the order of waters, sediments and biomonitors. If you have worked with different biodiversity components start from the simplest i. Step 3: Write up the Results This section responds to the question "What have you found? Statistical rules Indicate the statistical tests used with all relevant parameters: e. Use mean and standard deviation to report normally distributed data.

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    Use median and interpercentile range to report skewed data. For numbers, use two significant digits unless more precision is necessary 2. Never use percentages for very small samples e. Step 4: Write the Discussion Here you must respond to what the results mean. Take into account the following tips: 1. Avoid statements that go beyond what the results can support.